How to measure corruption?
The Muslim world`s school of thought does not give a colliding perspective. Prominent figures of the the International Islamic University of Islamabad Zaman Asas and Rahim Faizur also dispute the credibility of perception indices in corruption measurement. They establish that even at first glance corruption seems inestimable. The available indicators are short of measurability and specifics. TI index is named “highly misleading” because it deviates considerably from reality. It is also necessary to determine who is the perceiver, what is the object of perception and why (who is endorsing/requiring the outcomes). The authors exemplify the variability by providing traversing findings of other organisations.
The experts at United Nations and Global Integrity fuel criticism on the perception indices. They admit that many data sources must be applied altogether in order to acquire a more plausible measurement. There might be similarly sounding titles in the measurement toolkits, but they are directed at multiple targets. Although respondents in the research which produced the perception indices included developed and developing countries, the concepts that are processed are still Western-centric. There is not only disagreement about the definitions but also about whether the indices are input or output-centred.Enforcing anti-corruption measures
Another obstacle to the prevention and downsizing of corruption lays upon those that use the corruption definitions and measures – particularly, the law enforcement authorities. The intentional misinterpretation – or more precisely, deviation from the rules — opens the door for huge misuse of the delegated public duties to the various control figures. The most tangible manifestations of corruptions refer to police officers, among others. Bribery in the form of a promise, an offer or a gift, includes both the instigator (active corruption) as well as the receiving party (passive corruption). Another form is trading in influence whereby –in exchange for surpassing the law, the official may provide the corrupting party with undue advantage. The abuse of positions includes the unlawful performance or non-performance of public duties for the gain of other party. The most arguable police-related manifestation of corruption is the illicit enrichment, whereby no justifiable reason for the income exists – yet, the criminal pursuit of this type of corruption goes contrary to the innocence presumption and reverses the burden of proof.
The most common tactics in alleviating corruption among law enforcement officials target the narrowing of discretion left to the police in executing their duties. Concrete dimensions include internal monitoring (by infiltrating a colleague to spy an investigation team), the increased use of digital equipment (substituting or complementing the physical efforts of the officers), the de-institutionalisation of police services (re-assigning them to business entities or non-government organisations) and, last but not least, the control of the citizenry over undue behaviour of the law enforcement officers. The high level of public awareness and intolerance of corrupt acts among citizens still is a matter of personal attitude, but raising sensitivity can be additionally encouraged by educational measures, promotion of good role models as well as success stories, active media, etc.
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